Gap Academy
4 John Street, Toronto, Ontario   M9N 1J3   416  249-1500
An innovative approach to teaching pre-teens and adolescents with  learning disabilities.
Gap Articles
"Welcome to the wonderful world of Gap, where things really change."
"You are here to enrich the world."   Woodrow Wilson

"You are here to enrich the world."
Woodrow Wilson
"Do one thing every day that scares you."
Eleanor Roosevelt
Reactive Attachment Disorder

Attachment disorder is thought to be caused by early traumatic experiences, a lack of
attunement between baby and mother, or unwanted early traumatic experiences, or unwanted

Kids with attachment disorder show serious disturbances in their connections between
people, most notably their parents, siblings, and friends.   Conversely, they show
indiscriminate friendliness or trust to absolute strangers.   They have foregone conclusions
about life such as the 'bad' child syndrome, the 'I can trust no one routine', the 'I need to be in
total control of my life', and the 'I deserve to be hated' routine.   These foregone conclusions
(and a few others) culminate in either creating an extremely withdrawn child, or more
frequently a really badly behaved child.   These children are often labelled as behavioural,
FAE/FAS, ADHD and bi-polar; often the real diagnosis of RAD is left undiagnosed until years
after the behaviours first start and the behavioural modification prove their worthlessness
(with this group of kids).   For more detailed information, see our page on  
Exercises for Connection
Trouble with the Exercises!
"You are a child of the universe,
no less than the trees and the stars;
you have a right to be here.
And whether or not it is clear to you,
no doubt the universe is unfolding as it should."
Max Ehrmann - Desiderata
If you are an adoptive
parent, and have not yet
read this book, please
consider reading it.  Your
child's well-being may
depend on it.
"Never never never give up."|
Winston Churchill
"Live well, laugh often, love much."
Families of Children Adopted from China
Betty Jean Lifton
Leading Adoption
Lecturer and
Reactive Attachment Disorder, Adoptee Trauma,
or  Abandonment Trauma
Checklist from